The November 2015 Paris attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday, 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city’s northern suburb, Saint-Denis. Beginning at 21:16 CET, three suicide bombers struck outside the Stade de Francein Saint-Denis, during a football match. This was followed by several mass shootings and a suicide bombing, at cafés and restaurants. Gunmen carried out another mass shooting and took hostages at an Eagles of Death Metal concert in the Bataclan theatre, leading to a stand-off with police. The attackers were shot or blew themselves up when police raided the theatre.
The attackers killed 130 people, including 89 at the Bataclan theatre. Another 413 people were injured, almost 100 seriously. Seven of the attackers also died, while the authorities continued to search for accomplices. The attacks were the deadliest on France since the Second World War, and the deadliest in the European Union since the Madrid train bombings in 2004. France had been on high alert since the January 2015 attacks on Charlie Hebdo offices and a Jewish supermarket in Paris that killed 17 people and wounded 22, including civilians and police officers.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) claimed responsibility for the attacks, saying that it was retaliation for the French airstrikes on ISIL targets in Syria and Iraq. The President of France, François Hollande, said the attacks were an act of war by ISIL. The attacks were planned in Syria and organised by a terrorist cell based in Belgium. Most of the Paris attackers had French or Belgian citizenship, two were Iraqis, and all had fought in Syria. Some of them had entered Europe among the flow of migrants and refugees.
Nuit debout is a French social movement that began on 31 March 2016, arising out of protests against proposed labor reforms known as the El Khomri law or Loi travail. The movement was organized around a broad aim of “overthrowing the El Khomri bill and the world it represents”. It has been compared to the Occupy movement in the United States and to Spain’s anti-austerity 15-M or Indignados movement.
The movement began at Paris’s Place de la République, where protestors held nightly assemblies following the 31 March protest. The protests spread to dozens of other cities and towns in France as well as to neighboring countries in Europe and to countries further afield. Turnout at these protests dwindled after the first weeks; activists maintained the movement’s presence on the internet.